Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


» Visit Journal Web Site

Modernism, Volume 7

Review of English and American Literature number seven. The preface of this issue is wriiten by Shan Te-hsing, and seven essays are included. The theme of the issue is modernism.

“Home” Displaced: Joyce Cary’s African Novels

Joyce Cary used to be considered as an English writer of humanist inclination. With the rise of postcolonialism, his writing was either endowed with an imperialist touch, or included in the trans-European tradition of African novels. Such readings politicize Cary's texts at the risk of suppressing his Anglo-Irish identity. In consideration of this methodological gap, the present paper restores to their Irish context Cary's An American Visitor, Aissa Saved, The African Witch, and Mister Johnson, in order to uncover his agenda for writing Africa. Cary's Africa is a colonial space in jeopardy, with the internal conflict of English rule intertwined with native resistance to colonial power. This jeopardy is almost always triggered by westernized Africans. Like Cary, they pursue unattainable liberation and freedom while wavering between Englishness and nativism. Through this hybrid African image, Cary attempts to draw an analogy between Africa and the dis-empowered Ireland and to construct a hyphenated national identity of English liberalism and Irish innocence. As he pleads for this marginal identity, Cary also reveals the problems within imperial rule over the colony. Under external forces the Big House in Cary's later works can barely accommodate the children, much as Cary had to put himself into exile to England while Ireland became an independent nation. Through writing Africa Cary manages to restore his primal "home" although his real home was lost, and his choice of England as his home was barely an option.

Narrative Voice and Social Context in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice

This article deals with the interrelationships of narrative voice and social context in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Though Austen is often accused of ignoring major contemporary political and social events, her novels nonetheless reflect and re-create social contexts through her skillful maneuver of narrative voice. On one hand, the behavior of fictional characters is guided and controlled by the narrative voice so as to meet the accepted social mores and to uphold the existing social structure. On the other hand, Austen also re-creates a new social context (as known to us today) by apparently conforming to social customs and by subtly incorporating her own views as part of collective social values. This is exactly what a "genius" (in Donald E. Pease's words) is able to accomplish: to sanction the cultural authority and to transcend the cultural milieu simultaneously. Through Austen's narrative technique, a delicate balance between social order and individuality is thus achieved.

Screen, Maze, and the Female Dissimulation: Consuming Gothic Romance in Margaret Atwood's Lady Oracle

Women's consumption of gothic romance has been an important subject of study in contemporary popular culture. This paper analyzes Margaret Atwood's Lady Oracle (1976), exploring the complicated relationship between contemporary female readers and the gothic production/consumption. Briefly, a metafiction dramatizing the production and consumption of gothic romance, Lady Oracle juxtaposes its female protagonist's realist confessions and her gothic writings, significantly subjecting the mechanic reproduction of popular romance to serious cultural critiques. The first part of this paper, "Gothic Consumption as a Screen," interrogates the escapism of gothic romance. It casts into question the idea of gothic romance as a screen concealing social reality. "Gothic Space as a Maze" then explores the multi-layered and maze-like space of desire evolving alongside each gothic reading. It lays bare the trajectories of a gothic reader's sadism/masochism and melancholia. Finally, "Gothic Women in Dissimulation" investigates the possibility of constructing from the act of gothic reading a subversive space of female dissimulation. As demonstrated in Lady Oracle, female readers may identify with multiple roles in each romance. The seemingly passive gothic consumption may be transformed into an active self-construction.

Collage and Gothic Writing in Margaret Atwood’s The Journals of Susanna Moodie

This paper is a study of the textual strategies used by Margaret Atwood to imbue her poetry with new ideas for Canadian cultural identity. This study focuses on analyzing Atwood's creative use of collaged pictorial illustration and Gothic narrative techniques in her famous poetic series -- The Journals of Susanna Moodie (published in 1970). Atwood's poetic series contains 27 narrative poems, rewriting the most well-known immigrant life story of Susanna Strickland Moodie (1803-1852). In terms of Susanna Moodie's three different stages of settling herself in the Canadian wilderness, Atwood's poetry relates and reexamines the nineteenth century English Canadian settler history. Atwood's writing throws light on Canadian postcolonial imagination as Atwood traces the change -- the growth and development -- in Moodie's response to the land. She moves from her initial alienation to her attitude at the end where, as Atwood explains in the "Afterword," "Susanna Moodie has finally turned herself inside out, and has become the spirit of the land." This paper contains three parts. Part one intends to explain the postcoloniality conveyed in English Canadian literature. Part Two aims to elucidate Atwood's postcolonial imagination expressed through textual strategies, such as pictorial collages and Gothic narrative. Part Three interprets Atwood's surrealist ending for The Journals of Susanna Moodie -- turning a settler-invader into a patron-spirit of the land -- as a clear indication or Atwood's encouragement to all white Canadians, who should let go the guilty sense resulting from the colonial past and transcend Canadian mentality from the state of victimization.

Returning to Order or Indulging in Gaps: The Twin Narrative Drives in the Sherlock Holmes Detective Stories

Deconstructionists have convincingly argued for the existence of gaps, cracks and contradictions within detective stories that have been traditionally dismissed as transparent texts unproblematically transmitting existing values and reinforcing the status-quo. However, such arguments have not demonstrated sufficient awareness of the fact that these gaps and contradictions have always been self-obvious and inherent in detective texts, and that they have been necessarily caused by the twin opposing narrative drives embedded in detective stories. The drive to resolve disruption/crime, to return to order and stability, and the simultaneous drive to indulge in transgression and stimulus, faces narrative pressure toward resolution to the benefit of the former as the narrative moves to the end. The subversive potential thus resides not, as demonstrated by deconstructionists, in the existence of these gaps themselves, but in the challenges the narrative is subject to in trying to tame these disruptions after having gone to every conceivable length in indulging and amplifying them during the narrative. The Sherlock Holmes detective stories, with their affinity to adventure stories, face greater challenges as the stimulating pleasure of transgression threatens even further the narrative attempt toward order and resolution.

"Text Formula" of Popular Fiction and Its Connotations: Stephen King's Horror The Dark Half as an Example

This paper proposes the concept of "text formula" for popular fiction. The proposed formula is theoretically grounded on how Roland Barthes distinguishes "text" from "work." In so doing, it enables the study of formula to differ from traditional studies which focus on the contents of a story. Text formula pushes the envelope by taking into account things that surround the published story and seem to repeat themselves in popular fiction one after another. Thus, comments, reviews, pictures, and web sites all form part of the formula. Such an extra-texual coverage problematizes conventional conceptions of formula. Therefore, this paper argues that text formula reveals the manipulation of the culture industry on the one hand, while it also shows the complexity of popular mentality on the other hand. Stephen King's The Dark Half will be cited as an example to illustrate the applicability of text formula. Hopefully, text formula will be able to engender new views for approaching popular fiction.

On the Ambivalence of the Technological Existence in Contemporary Cyberpunk and Cyberculture

This essay conceives of the diverse contemporary discourses of technological existence as exposing the crisis caused by the human subject's symbiosis with technology immanent in cyberculture. This essay is divided into three parts. The first part examines various scientific and technological practices and researches that attempt to imagine and image the emergent and the future technological existence and virtually contribute to bringing forth cyberculture, such as cybernetics, cyborg, artificial intelligence, artificial life and connectionism. Then, the discussion turns to the representations of ambiguous technological existence in cyberpunk, including William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, Neal Stephenson and Michael Swanwick. The strategy of "symptomatic reading" is utilized to expose the otherness, anxiety, ambiguity and uncertainty underlying the narratives being examined, work through them, and maximize their values in understanding the nature of cyberculture. The third part offers a philosophized clarification and rethinking of the crucial issues evoked in the previous two parts, including body, mind, subjectivity, life and death, and opens a dialogue between philosophy and techno-cultural discourses. The ultimate objective is to critique both cyber-utopian and cyber-dystopian stances, and then formulate a subtler conceptual framework to diagnose the symptomatic ambiguity of the posthuman technological existence in cyberculture.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8