Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


» Visit Journal Web Site

The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10

The city has been a central them of the state, religion, academia, or politico-economics. It is also a realm where literature and culture cultivate. The city activates the writers’ imagination and becomes the motif in the works of English and American literatures.

Authorial Ego in Early English Vernacular Literature

Medieval England presents a very complex picture of its vernacular literature. Aside from the various English dialects, there were the French vernacular literature and Latin literature. The language of the latter differs somewhat from that of the Roman classical period. recently, there were scholars promulgating the idea that Middle English vernacular literature capitalizes on a form of nationhood and identity. This article, up to analyze the prefaces of the collected texts. The author's status/identity, object of dedication, target reader/audience, authorial intention and forms of writing are discussed and the samples include such works as Laзamon's Brut, Wace's Roman de Brut, Lydgates' Troy Book, Mannyng's Chronicle, the anonymous Cursor Mundi and Gower's Confessio Amantis. This two hundred years' range of vernacular English literature is found to have a prominent authorial ego which played a significant social role. tis literary ties and cultural connections with the classical tradition, however, are virtually tightly knitted. The ego consciousness therefore offers a vital aspect of the writings apart from the latter's nationhood image.

Myth-Making and Realism: The Self-Fashioning of London as Modern Metropoli

The self-fashioning of London as Troynovant (new Troy) or Rome proliferates in quasi-historical writings, city custumals, and literature in the early modern period. The eighteenth-century writers, including Edward Ward, Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and Tobias Smollett, opt for the realistic mode, tinting their descriptions of London street life with a rhetoric that appeals to social topography, a spatial politics that polarizes The West End and The East End, center and suburbs. This paper provides a cultural reading of this dichotomous urban construct in a number of eighteenth-century literary texts.

Mixture and Transition: The Urban Space(s) in Flannery O'Connor's "Everything That Rises Must Converge"

This paper focuses on the spatial politics inscribed on human memories and practiced in the public social spaces in Flannery O'Connor's "Everything That Rises Must Converge." The narrative event happened on a bus in a small American southern town in 1950s, while the public space was just desegregated. The riders on the bus were all facing a new situation and both the white and the black people were not used to this kind of spatial relationship. Their behavior and thoughts could be seen as the results of a much more complicated inscription of the Southern culture and history of slavery and discrimination. Racial discrimination and the Southern culture make the fictional urban space full of mistrust and threats. Henri Lefebvre's concepts such as "space is social space" and his interpretation of the re/production of social space will be re-examined and applied to analyze the various aspects of geographical, social, psychological and gendered space(s) represented through the struggles both on and off the bus in the narrative as the products of particular social and cultural spaces. The possibility of "convergence" as rehabilitation in the public space and the restoration of the private one become the problematic issues of spatial politics the characters should deal with personally at the end of the fiction.

Photographic Images in Contact Photographs and the Bodily Camera in Thomas King's Medicine River

This essay explores the ekphrasis of photographic images in Thomas King's Medicine River, examining the photograph as object in relation to the semiotic representation of the native peoples and cultures of the Americas. While it critiques the semiotic reproduction of photographic images of native peoples, the argument suggests that the presentational forms of the photographs of Indians, established by a cultural environment of making meaning that a visual approach to photographic images cannot accomplish alone, make up for the act of viewing when images are contacted in the process of production, circulation, and usage. As such, photographic images in contact can be incorporated into a form of bodily camera which stands a chance of engaging with mimetic faculty to the native and thus allows contemporary natives to material connections with the tribal past, present, and future.

The Politics of Fashion and the Hyperreal New York in Sex and the City

New York in Sex and the City on HBO represents fashion, pleasure, and romance; however this paper intends to uncover the veil of the happy New York and to discover class struggles and a simulate New York under the mask of fashion. According to the theoretical discourses by Veblen, Simmel, and Bourdieu, fashion is by no means neutral but contains powers to distinguish the rich from the poor, the tasteful from the tasteless. Fashion is a politics that demarcates classes, groups, and identities. In Sex and the City, fashion marks the bourgeois-heterosexual-unmarried-white-female elites and simultaneously excludes classed, gendered, and ethnic others. The New York on fashion hence is not the real New York in reality but a hyperreal New York that seemingly replaces the reality by the power of mass media.

War, Warrior Myth, and the Ethics of Traumatic Awakening: Pat Barker's Regeneration

It is now a critical consensus that Pat Barker's novel, Regeneration, mainly deals "with questions of heroism, manliness, and honor, and with the woundings of war." This paper argues that Pat Barker writes Regeneration not only to examine the language of war, and the practices of warfare, but also to investigate how they join hands to perpetuate and romanticize the "warrior myth" as the only legitimate means for young men to assess and perform their "manhood." Barker does this not by depicting the bloodsheds in the battlefields but by focusing on the traumatic "regeneration" of shell-shocked officers in World War I. On the one hand, by giving a fictional account of the meeting at Craiglockhart war hospital of poets Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, and anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, Barker exposes the fictionality, or the impossibility, of "regeneration," while calling to the reader's attention the psychic processes through which the traumatized officers work through their traumas either by translating their memories of war into poetry or by engaging in the Freudian "talking cure" with one another. On the other hand, Barker also includes into her novel the controversial Biblical story of Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac to intimate the imperative that those who do not fight in the war come to the traumatic awakening that the soldiers' traumas are as much the soldiers' as theirs. Unless the traumatic voices of the dead and shell-shocked soldiers are heard and their blind loyalty to the interlocking ideologies of war, manhood, and nationalism acknowledged and unraveled, Barker thus suggests, no trauma of war will be healed and no regeneration is ever possible.

Perspectives on the New Millennium: Le Guin's Changing Planes

Ursula K. Le Guin's 2003 science fiction, Changing Planes, is a collection of 16 short stories manifesting her keen grasp of issues relevant to contemporary culture. Her portrayal of various posthuman societies raises questions concerning the emergence of the posthuman, the efficacy of biotechnology, and the impact of globalization. Le Guin attempts to unravel controversial aspects concerning the discourse of the posthuman, pinpointing adverse effects of the recourse to biotechnology to help establish a posthuman utopia. Furthermore, through various stories dealing with money and technology, corporate power, consumer culture, and the intrusion of foreign cultures, Le Guin aims to tackle problems concerning globalization and capitalism. Le Guin's critique of the new Leviathan -- global cultural hegemony -- indeed sheds significant light on current debates concerning potential direction of the New Millennium.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8