Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


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Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12

The Spatial Imagination and Multiple Perspectives in John Milton's Paradise Lost

Milton's cosmography and delineation of space in Paradise Lost has been continually explored by scholars and critics over the years, especially on how 17th-century scientific discoveries might contribute to Milton's spatial perspectives. However, critical attentions tend to focus on the construction of one or more realms (e.g. the hell, chaos, the garden, or the empyrean) rather than the overall spatial imagination in the epic. This paper takes a holistic view in the study of Milton's construction of space. Analyzing Milton's portrayal of individual realms within the world of Paradise Lost, it attempts to identify the underlying principle that lead to Milton's idiosyncratic presentation of space. This paper argues that Milton does not present stable and clearly stratified space with clear contours and horizontal motions. Instead, his space ranges between the clear and the obscure, the finite and the infinite, the constant and variable. His spatial perspective shifts between God, Satan, Adam, and the angels. His imagination is built upon the relation between the visible and the invisible. This complex spatial construct cannot be understood as merely a portrayal of space based on realistic or physical experience. Rather it is the linguistic construct of a symbolic space, an attempt to approach the invisible spiritual realm with limited means, that is, the finite human sense and the insufficient medium of the human language.

“Who has passed here before me?” Dialectic of Fixity and Fluidity in “Wandering Rocks”

The first section of "Wandering Rocks" features a meaning-cohesive style which one critic terms as "the Conmee style" (Williams) laying the ground for the logocentric drive concentrating on the religious hegemony depicted in this episode. However, the also omnipresent discontinuous intrusive passages, the persistent indefinite articles, the formulaic labeling of the characters, and then the formalistically echoing style all constitute a centrifugal force in contradistinction to the centripetal meaning-fixing stability which the Conmee style of section 1 seeks to produce. They form the textual "wandering rocks" impeding the logical flow and mimetic impulse of the plot. In "Wandering Rocks," one can argue that while overtly diffusing the one single centralizing perspective into 19 and more (on account of intrusions) local and fragmented ones, its narrative method in the meantime reinscribes a "territorial, spatial imperative" which bears out modern nationalism's "inviolability of territory" (Duffy 56, 55). That is, a suspicious holism and mounumentalization which the textual fragmentation-intrusions galvanize inadvertently seek to be restored in the midst of the overt decentralized textual flow. Such self-divided textual impetuses are symptomatic of the inherently divergent directions which the religious and political ideologies in Ireland headed as Joyce dissects it in "Wandering Rocks."

Superstition and Science in Gertrude Steinís WWII Writing

Focusing on Gertrude Stein's works written during the Second World War (1938-1945),this paper aims to call attention to the allusions to superstitious belief and practice in them, after the recent attempts (Meyer, Chodat) to establish correlation between Stein's writing and science. To link Stein's scientific training at college to the superstitious theme in the WWII years, we first look backward to the fascination of the late 19th-century scientists, especially William James her psychology professor at Radcliffe, with psychical research. Then, we try to argue Stein's exploration of the superstitious thinking might stem paradoxically from her interest in modern cognition science. Our third approach is to refer to James's Pragmatism to further our effort to strike compromise between science and religion/superstition, just as James ventured on. Finally, with relevant findings in recent psychological researches, we try to indicate the rational operation of the seemingly irrational superstitious beliefs and rituals, which function to reduce the emotional disorder caused by death concerns, to shorten psychologically the time of suffering, to create the positive illusion of control, and to increase expected "utility," if not "value," by bringing about psychological satisfaction. After revealing the pragmatic mechanism working behind the superstitious thinking, we believe that Stein adopted a certain "strategy of superstition" to revive an alternative epistemology long repressed by rationalism and science and, further, to propose a vision of reality similar to James's conception of Pragmatic Truth. As a result, Stein's writing on superstition is not necessarily opposed to her scientific training in early years, but rather in a subtle dialogue with it and with contemporary psychical research, cognitive science and the philosophy of Pragmatism.

The Problematics of Border-crossing: Migrants and Migrancy in V. S. Naipaul’s Fiction

This paper reads V. S. Naipaul's novels - The Mimic Men (1967), A Bend in the River (1979), The Enigma of Arrival (1987), and A Way in the World (1994) - to explore the figures of migrants in relation to the problematics of border-corssing. The way Naipaul inscribes in his works the experience of (re)locating identities is examined alongside the theory formulated by James Clifford, Iain Chambers, Paul Gilroy and Homi. K. Bhabha. This paper lays special emphasis on how Naipaul's fiction negotiates the tension between "roots" and "routes." Migrancy as a controlling metaphor not only accounts for the complex phenomenon of cultural displacement and the inevitability of movement of peoples in his fiction but also highlights the inter-/trans-cultural translation that his protagonists encounter. This paper then affirms Naipaul's achievement in his metaphorizing of migration as a strategy of identity negotiation in our changing world.

Diaspora Myth and the Reconstruction of Heroine in the Frontier Movement--Study Third World Woman's body Experiences and Meanings of Transformation in Bharati Mukherjee's Jasmine

In the tendency of globalization and the new wave of immigration, women who come from the third world have recreated the navel tie between owner-labor and economy, whereas the identities of newly position face the challenge as well. To possess the right of naturalization is the final goal of these immigrated women around the new environments. Therefore, there are many issues such as gender, identities and nationality emerge to the surface and raise the conflicts and negotiations in the process of becoming a citizen of new arrival. Being a diasporic woman of third world, the construction between identity from inner self and image from outer world weave and drag each other consequently. Nevertheless, writing on bodily experience makes the voice to be spoken out possible. Moreover, the experience to get involved in the first world by these third world women become the precious information to provide and to study. Hence, this paper will apply the theory of minority discourse from Homi Bhabha, studying Bharati Mukherjee's Jasmine 1989 with the concept of the Third Space or supplementary space in order to comprehend the choice of Jasmine's identity for being posited in the space of dislocation and marginal. What's more, this paper will analyze how Mukherjee reconstructed a new-generation heroine in the frontier movement by empowering Jasmine's body transformation and self consciousness of sexual desire. Among the abundant research documents, the switch of Jasmine's names and identities is the pivot of discussion. However, the transformation will interact with the space and people of surroundings. How Jasmine senses the real America and self through her bodily experience will be the central theme to discuss here. Last but not the least; the paper will probe into the new spirit and value as a new immigrant heroine who Mukherjee fulfilled through the turning from miracle transformation to objective action in the story.

Postmodern Hybridity and Performing Identity in Gish Jen and Rebecca Walker

In this essay, I shall first briefly discuss literature by early Chinese immigrants (as "ambassadors of good will"), second-generation Chinese American writers (some as assimilationists), Chinese American writers in the 1960s (some as cultural nationalists), and early bi-racial writers -- all of whom generally situate racial identity within a binary context. Then, using Jen's Mona in the Promised Land and Walker's Black White and Jewish, I will explore a new mode of subjectivity in today's postmodern-capitalist regime, an identity that is no longer situated in the in-between of binary oppositions but involves an incessant movement of a proliferation of differences. I argue that the non-stop performance of identities enables the performers of the two texts to disregard their split, ease their anxiety about the diminishing Other, and reduce the other to one---imaginary, authentic, and totally rhetoricalized. Next, I will examine how these identity performers in both texts are all assumed in the Capitalist Other and how identity performance and postmodern hybridity are both concomitant with today's Global-Capitalist regime. Finally, I suggest a possible political identity. It is one neither grounded within the standard binary framework nor based on an endless movement of performance. Rather, it lies in acknowledging the extent of one's obedience to the Other, the recognition of the lack in self, others, and the Other, and the ability to embrace a Lacanian "partial enjoyment." Nowadays, accepting the partiality of enjoyment is one way to form a symbolic bond in that we may mutually recognize that we all have sacrificed our enjoyment and none has it all.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8