Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


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Landscape and Literature, Vol 13

Conduct Books’ Advice to Women on Economy in Georgian England

The instruction of conduct books constituted an essential part of women's education in Georgian England. Apart from the subjects -- religion, conduct and behavior, amusements, as well as friendship, love and marriage -- covered in the widely read and highly applauded Father's Legacy to His Daughters (1774) by John Gregory (1724-73), economy, extolled as "an art as well as a virtue" (147) by Hester Mulso Chapone (1727-1801) in Letters on the Improvement of the Mind (1773), assumed no less importance in contemporary conduct manuals. This paper aims to examine the contradiction underlying the discourse of economy in Georgian conduct manuals. It will explore how the discourse in eighteenth-century English conduct books addressing to women contrived systematically to limit women's spending by turning their attention from the many and diversified pleasures to household management and to charity practices. This paper will further point out that by constructing a science of household management, these conduct manuals intended to convince Georgian women that besides household spending, alms giving was the only justifiable expenditure for them. The basic argument of this paper is that while conduct-book teachings on economy imposed on women a notion that the private domain is their destined place in life and strategically confined them at home, charity practices of women somehow provided an opening for women to enter the public sphere and legitimized their participation in public activities. Ultimately this newly invented branch of knowledge, though gender-biased, is not entirely without sense. For, the focus on women's general education and lucrative employments, in effect, bestowed on them some prerequisite knowledge of citizenship of modern England.

Dickens’s London in Bleak House

This paper treats a high regard for Dickens's mature use of London as the multifaceted setting in Bleak House (1852-53). The plots, characters, and themes are all related to the radical urbanization and modernization in nineteenth-century London. This paper first discusses how Dickens represents urban landscape, including narrow streets, the dysfunctional sanitation and sewerage, the building of railways, and the dirty and miserable slum. Dickens's representation attempts to pin down the chaotic city and to re-define the meaning of London. However, the urban landscape is always out of the author's control, just like the fluid and unrepresentable "fog" in London. Thus, Dickens's description of London, on the one hand, portrays that the city is readable and controllable; on the other hand, it simultaneously reveals that the city is unreadable and incontrollable. This paper then discusses how this unrepresentable and disordered urban landscape becomes the major element of Gothic novel, such as the haunted-house-like London, labyrinth-like streets, ruin-like slum, and vampire-like lawyers. London in this way turns out to be the seedbed of crime. Inspector Bucket is a detective and also a flâneur. The appearance of this character symbolizes a panoptic and rationalized control of urban landscape, but the endless crimes imply the resistance to be dominated. From this perspective, this paper further analyzes that London provides a stage for detection and crime, so Bleak House becomes a detective novel. Overall, this paper attempts to discuss how Dickens represents London and the multiple functions of urban landscape in the Bleak House.

Cowboys, Myth, Fetishism: The Male Body Spectacle and the Western Imagination in Sam Shepard’s Plays

Since the American western landscape is hardly complete without the image of cowboys, literary works and media that develop the Western themes have therefore constructed different cowboy heroes. Among them, the cowboy icons created by the Hollywood's Western genre have in many ways conditioned the public perception of the American West. The particularity of their body performances is a coded access to the Western imagination; furthermore, the spectacle of the cowboy bodies projects and affirms the values of the masculine power. Through those valorized and/or romanticized bodies, a norm has been created that testifies to a value structure hidden under the Western narrative surface; they reflect a performative West which is repeated in the dominant discourses. However, Sam Shepard, the highly acclaimed American playwright, has often transgressed the norm by gothicizing and fetishisizing the bodies of his male characters in order to subvert the Western myth. The present research reexamines the Western landscape projected by Shepard by focusing on the male body spectacle in his plays. This paper further argues that his American west is constructed to articulate his criticism of the American culture and society, rather than to reinforce the national narrative grown out of patriarchal and masculine ideology. From the sterile desert inhabited by grotesque cowboys to the junkyard haunted by male violence, the scene has kept evolving, until the introduction of the female view into the picture finally transforms the desolate landscape. This researcher would point out that Shepard not only resists the conventional Western performance but also proves himself to be neither a sexist nor a masculinist, as some critics have labeled him. On the contrary, he emancipates the western landscape from the dominance of patriarchal force and masculine violence through his revisions of the West.

Spatial Anxiety and Reading Practice: Everyday Life in Agatha Christie’s Detective Novels

Lauded as "Queen of Crime," Agatha Christie has been the most prolific writer of the Golden Age. Though inheriting some conventions from her predecessors, her detective genre generates numerous publications and incessant original ideas of detection, poison, and murder. Christie's designs of plots and roles are vitalized in a structural and social sense since they bear profound witnesses to the ever-changing British society. As repetitive themes in classic detective novels, such as credits of science, reason, and surveillance, always help to consolidate the established legitimacy of ideology and social order, Christie's works are inevitably subject to the same criticism. Yet, issues about how Christie's textual space and characters stimulate the reading public's interest and how their reading experiences develop with such stimulations have not been quite emphasized. Addressing these issues, this paper will focus, first, a spatial trait of Christie's unique country setting; second, investigate her specific characterization of detective and criminal; last, explore an inter-textual relation concerning how readers appropriate the textual space to their senses of everyday life in the activity of reading and detecting.

Time and the Other Notes on Postcolonial-Global “Contemporaneity”

A major strand in the theories of globalization has been advancing the spatialization of theory, arguing that spatial thinking offers a more effective way (than temporal thinking) to undermine Eurocentrism. This paper contests such a proposition by bringing into view the relevance of time and temporality in the context of postcolonial globalization. Drawing on theories of Homi K. Bhabha, Harry Harootunian, Henri Lefebvre, and Dipesh Chakrabarty, I argue that "temporality" can help us attend to the question of ethics on various fronts. First of all, "temporality" can provide a valid perspective on issues of "radical difference" such as spiritual or religious experience. In comparison, the now practically sanctified global-local dyad in theories of globalization, a predominantly spatialized model ("of a globe" vs. "of a locale"), oftentimes falls short of addressing non-secular experiences. Secondly, in response to the popular view that the "outside" has disappeared in the age of globalization, I suggest that "temporality" can in effect serve as an outside intervening in the seemingly totalizing logic of globalization. Thirdly, a consideration of temporality can also help further postcolonial theory by broadening its discussions beyond the parameters of "history," as the concept of temporality encompasses more than just history or historicity.

Land-(e)scape or Mindscape: Space and Place in The Buddha of the Suburbia

This paper explores how the landscape of London and its suburb are translated into mindscapes of the protagonist, hence reflecting his roles of socio-cultural production in different time-spaces. I would first appropriate the idea of place and space from Yi-Fu Tuan and Mike Crang, both affirming that space is more abstract than place. Place is defined as a geographic location brought forth by common experiences of a crowd or a community, easily ignored for people rarely find it difficult to know their residential areas. On the other hand, space represents freedom and opportunity on account of its uncertainty. While the protagonist long resides in the suburb as a place, London's urbanscape turns to be his imaginative space. Yet the latter soon loses its glamour after the hero has finally become a Londoner. This process illuminates that while landscape and mindscape are mutually molded, each of them constantly escapes the subsuming power of the other party. In this way, the inevitable mental portrayal of the landscape has made it something other than the place recognized by its residents, which turns to be land-(e)scape as this paper calls it. Following the route taken by the hero, together with socio-economic relationships with which he is entangled, I would like to divide this paper into three parts. The first part examines that the suburban landscape, which is always dreary for the protagonist, is never devoid of the geographic in-betweenness and cultural heterogeneity. This is because the hero's suburban residence as a place fascinates him that London is a space. He has never found that his adolescent privilege of leisure enables him to look into the fine texture of his residence, while at the same time includes the landscape of London into his mindscape. Unsatisfied with the suburban mediocrity then, the protagonist is a cultural consumer yearning to upgrade his lower-middle class in the metropolis. The "real" landscape hence escapes his imaginary mindscape. The second part excavates a process in which urban space rapidly comes down to a place after the hero immigrates into London with other major characters. At this moment he is obsessed with how his ethnic outlook is to facilitate a budding acting career. Since the protagonist is inlayed in the relations of production in London and serves to be a part of its cultural landscape, the urbanscape as space is constantly ignored. The hero's short stay in New York and final homecoming in London turns to be the research object of the third part. Unable to accommodate himself to a social web revolved around his lover Charlie, the protagonist re-attaches himself to London. A successful career and the reassurance of his interpersonal relationship render London as a city where place coexists with space, and landscape overlaps mindscape.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8