Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


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Word, Image, Space, Vol 14

El Norte, Latin American People's American Dream/Nightmare An Apocalypse/Revelation Road

This paper examines Gregory Nava's film El Norte (1983), discussing the migration of Latin American people and its problems, such as their memory and nostalgia for their hometown, after moving to the so-called paradise -- the North, or the United States of America. El Norte talks about how a Native American brother and a sister undertaken a dangerous trip to stow away to the North, after their father died in an insurrection and their mother was imprisoned. This movie focuses on their unfavourable turnaround in life and the odyssey in that imaginary paradise. Gregory Nava tried to deploy magic realism in El Norte to represent the world between the dream and the reality. While presenting the protests and pains of labor workers, he also uses a great variety of symbols to retrace the indigenous civilization. Nava's film El Norte, one of the most representative Chicano movies in the 1980s, has penetrated into the essence of Mayan mythology and its legend. This paper draws a parallel between the collective trauma and conscience of the Latin American immigrants as well as the representation of indigenous and catholic culture and analyzes the ways in which the cineaste has tried to reveal these themes via moving images and symbolism.

Two Wyomings Homophobic Crimes and American Historical Violence in Literary/Visual Brokeback Mountain

Even though there is increasing attention paid to violence and genocide in the field of political philosophy, homophobic crimes still remain a less explored subject as to how they can be better understood and prevented. Two important events that are related to the subject require our close examinations: one is the murder of the gay university student Matthew Shepard in Laramie, Wyoming; the other, the artistically and commercially acclaimed film Brokeback Mountain, based on Annie Proulx's short fiction of two gay men's thwarted love in Wyoming, which, according to Proulx, is a look at rural homophobia. In this paper, the researcher attempts to argue that to regard the literary and/or cinematic versions of Brokeback Mountain as a "gay cowboy love story" is to minimize the impacts and mislead the perceptions of homophobic violence in today's world. On the one hand, this paper aims to demonstrate that Proulx's story is in fact an example of American western/national narrative; on the other hand, it points out how the western myth of violence exists in both reality and fictional imagination by juxtaposing Brokeback Mountain and the murder case of Matthew Shepard. Western movies and fictions, as the paper continues to emphasize, tend to legitimize such violence. When "the Western" becomes the new gay landscape where the real crime and the fictional gay predicament collide, it is crucial to ask whether the new mixed genre of "gay western"helps shed light on the violence in American history. Or rather, is homophobic violence thus historicized and its destructive force mythicized?

A Frankensteinian Gaze into Soseki Fujoshi Visual Rhetoric of Comics Kokoro

This paper investigates the problematic of homoerotics, community consciousness and visual translation in Nariko Enomoto's comics adaptation of Soseki's Kokoro. As an uncanny tribute to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Soseki's original revealed a ubiquitous homoerotic tension among multiple male narrators, which is further accentuated by the visual and narratorial framing in particular conventions of BL (Boy Love) comics. The ambiguous relation among the three male characters, as well as Sensei's sex guilt and his eventual breakup with his wife, conforms to the embedded fujoshi imaginary of BL genre. Intriguingly enough, both Enomoto and Shelley foreground the dialectic between the absence and silencing of women and love and guilt within male bonding. As a confessional writing, BL comics Kokoro conflates the high and low imaging styles and deploys the framing of gradational dark panels to create a hybrid visual style between eiga (cinema) and manga (comics). Through the operation of nakamaishiki within the homosocial community and heterotopian mapping in fujoshi visual rhetoric, Enomoto's Kokoro adaptation not only strategically unveils the queerness in Soseki's literary canon, but also cogently challenges the ways in which Japanese mainstream culture represents or conceals homoeroticism.

Swift as Gulliver? Authorship and Fictionality in the Frontispieces and Front Matter of Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver's Travels is one of the most celebrated works by the Irish satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745). When the work was first published in 1726, the title as printed on the title-page is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World and the author is not Swift but "Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of several Ships," with a portrait of the fictional author "Captain Gulliver" on its frontispiece, under which the caption shows that Gulliver was 58 years old at the time his travels were published (exactly the same age as the real author Swift in that year). When Gulliver's Travels appeared in a 1735 edition of Swift's collected Works, on the title-page its author still reads "Lemuel Gulliver" with his portrait again displayed on the frontispiece, but in the caption the lines about Gulliver's age and residence are replaced by a line from Horace's poem: "Splendide Mendax. Hor." ["Gloriously False"] (Odes III xi. 35). Moreover, in the front matter of this edition Swift for the first time inserts a letter by Gulliver to his cousin Sympson. This paper aims at exploring Swift's intended purpose(s) in arranging the frontispieces and front matter in different editions of Gulliver's Travels. I also deal with the satiric strategies such as persona and the satirist-satirized, and examine the interrelationship between the satirist and the reader/audience in the satiric tradition, so as to illuminate the intersecting, partly overlapping relationship between Swift and his fictional character Gulliver and toillustrate how such an intriguing relationship might cast impact on the readers then and today.

Diaspora Politics and Aestheticized Landscape in Julie Dash's Daughters of the Dust

Julie Dash's ground-breaking film Daughters of the Dust (1991) narrates a family reunion on Ibo Landing before the family members depart for the North the next day. A filmmaker, director, and writer, Dash draws on diverse sources of the Gullah culture and weaves the magical sense of the place into the very texture of the film. This paper aims to elucidate the film in relation to diaspora politics and to address how the aestheticized landscape demonstrates Dash's diasporic art -- "multilayered unfolding" narration, politics of resistance and inclusion, and special mode of temporality, which further complicates Gabriel Sheffer's "diaspora politics" and Ien Ang's "productive, creative syncretism." While Dash's endeavor in recovering her people's cultural heritage as an alternative way to articulate their cultural identity may not be unproblematic, the way she coats her political agenda in sophisticated filmic narratives, in embracing the syncretic details of the everyday existence of African diaspora, and in elaborating a fluid and dynamic combination of varied cultural forms are indeed theoretically effective.

When "The Eye of Reason" Blinks: The Landscapes-in-Movement in Harry Potter Series

I use J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter Series as an example to demonstrate that the landscapes of the so-called "imaginary world" in fantasy literature do not simply serve as the background where the plots of the story unfold but rather are profoundly related to the way in which the leading characters utilize their senses to constitute the surroundings. In the tradition of fantasy literature, authors usually construct certain apparatus which acts as a linkage connecting the "real" world to a space located in another spatiotemporal dimension. The magic world in Harry Potter Series is therefore prominent in the sense that it coexists with the Muggle world instead. Only those who discard the ocularcentric view and hence are able to trigger a wide range of bodily experiences will have access to the magical world. Harry Potter Series thus make explicit that the "real" and "fantasy" worlds are not necessarily different in essence; it is the way of seeing and experiencing the world that determines the shape of the surroundings. Generally speaking, the Muggle world in the Series relies exclusively on vision and accordingly the rigid structure organized by visual practices. "The Eye of Reason" disputes any unassignable elements. Emphasizing the notions of the proper name and given properties, the landscape of the "real" world is populated with perpetuated figures. The fear of boundary-transgression is so enormous that most Muggles deliberately ignore the flows of time and the flexibility of forms which have constituted an inevitable dimension of the mode of existence. The magic world, by contrast, emerges out of the blind spot of "the Eye of Reason." Its landscapes burst into life out of the very fabric of the "real" world when the way of seeing changes. For the wizards and witches, seeing is not believing. The dynamics of touch penetrate into the flesh of the magic space in which the flows of time are embodied and the body experiences ambiguous transformations in contact.

Travel, Landscape, and Representation: Europe and the South Seas in Robert Louis Stevenson's Travel Writings

This essay focuses on the discussion of landscape representation in Robert Louis Stevenson's three travel writings: An Inland Voyage (1878), Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes (1879), and In the South Seas (1896). Three questions are analyzed in the landscape representation of the three travel writings: first, how the traveller's cultural discourses are embodied in the travel writings; second, how the travelling self interacts with the Other; and thirdly, how the traveller constructs his self. After introducing the three travel writings, the essay discusses, as a theoretical framework, the interaction between the self and the Other on the contact zone, and the relationship between cultural discourses and travel writings. The essay proper investigates An Inland Voyage and Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes through the discourse of Romanticism and In the South Seas through the discourse of imperialism. The two travel writings depicting European rural areas reveal the author's cultural values and demonstrates the traits of Romanticism: emphasizing the pleasure of individualist travel instead of group tourism, depicting picturesque scenery, and searching one's self through nature. However, the traveller encountered drastic transformation after his contact with the Other in the Pacific. In his last travel writing In the South Seas, Stevenson adopted a contrapuntal viewpoint located in the space of "liminality," challenging the Western hegemonic discourse of imperialism. His anti-imperialist tendency offended his contemporary readers, and the struggle between two cultures rendered the travel text fragmented.

Indigenous Landscape Construction in America Sacagawea in Glancy's Stone Heart and Mojica's "Birdwoman and the Suffragettes: A Story of Sacajawea"

This paper intends to re-construct American landscape in terms of literary works by two Native American women authors: Diane Glancy's Stone Heart: A Novel of Sacajawea is one and Monique Mojica's "Birdwoman and the Suffragettes: A Story of Sacajawea." Both Glancy and Mojica attempt to map Sacagawea as an indigenous woman which (the mapping) is different from that in Euro-Americans'; nevertheless, these two female Native American authors also depict Sacagawea differently with their own interpretation and manifestation. Sacajawea is remapped in Glancy's novel in the light of parallel writing, second person point of view and the landscape naming. Mojica focuses more on manual-labored construction such as statues and plaques. The former discloses the restriction of Sacagawea while the latter, aims at portraying and furthermore, releasing this indigenous woman. It is only by means of landscape drawing/mapping that the image of Sacajawea is deeply demonstrated and elaborated.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8