Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


» Visit Journal Web Site

Senses and Literature, Volume 16

Snapshocking Virginia Woolf

By taking "A Sketch of the Past" written in 1939 as a point of departure, this essay attempts to theorize a new concept of "snapshock" to capture the singular temporality and sensibility of the "moments of being" described as "a sudden violent shock" in Virginia Woolf 's text. While "snapshot" in the traditional usage refers to the picture taken in a short time of exposure and "shock" testifies the overwhelming sensation, "snapshock" as a neology points not only to the momentary intensity and bodily sensation of picture-making, but also to the creative linkage established between "snapshot" as a modern technology and "shock" as a modern sensation, to the intertwinement among the visual, the tactile and the auditory, and further to the possibility of taking the "snapshock" as a shock to "thought-image" or "thought-event." Therefore, this essay will be divided into two parts to explore the theorization of "snapshock." Part I will trace back to Woolf 's writings and biographical document to foreground the ambivalent positioning of the snapshot as both an old metaphor for Victorian realism and a new technology for modernist aesthetics. It will then move to the under-developed possibility of taking "the moment" of the snapshot as the intensity of bodily sensation by bringing in the "aesthetics of the shock" in modernity elaborated by Walter Benjamin.

Everyday Miracles in the Multicultural Carnival: Zadie Smith's White Teeth and the Contingency and Exigency of the Ethical

Ever since its publication in 2001, Zadie Smith's White Teeth has earned critical acclaim and widespread media attention. Critics hail the novel for its negotiation with multiculturalism, rewriting of Englishness, and celebration of heterogeneous identities that are both hybridized and carnivalesque. That most critics have "seen" nothing else in the novel but identity politics reflects, on the one hand, that such "identity talk" continues to cast its spell on the critical community today. On the other hand, this collective identitarianism also suggests theoretical fixation and aporia, as critics were blackmailed into a conceptual deadlock framed either by the logic of specificity or by that of the community. Whereas it is undeniable that Smith's novel does underscore ethnic differences, it is a novel that also poses questions about the reconfiguration of subjectivity and probes into the possibilities of conducting a life style that is ethical as well as non-indifferent. This paper proposes to respond to the ethical possibilities entertained by Smith's White Teeth by reading it alongside and with Eric Santner's formulation of the "psychotheology of the everyday" and Slavoj Žižek's proposition of the "ethical act." I argue that heightened identity conflicts in a multi-ethnic context figure as excesses that cut into the fabrics of the subject's everyday life, with the cuts and disruptions signifying not only subversions and resistances but also calls that demand the subject both to confront the contingency of everyday life, and to act under the ethical imperative to go beyond "the uncanny interpellation of ideological interpellations."

The Poetics of Visual Sensuality in The Book of Margery Kempe

The Book of Margery Kempe, the first known autobiography in English about the mystical visions of a fifteenth century secular woman, has raised important questions about its authorship and authority. Although modern readers tend to conceive the relationship between the lay female author and her male clergial scribes in terms of binary opposition of orality and literacy, The Book resists such polarization by virtue of a variety of dynamic intervention of visual sensuality. Based on the recent critical attention to Margery's bodily devotion and the blurring of body and text, this paper further investigates the intricate problems of visuality, sensuality and textuality in The Book. Besides the interweaving of glorious visions and unsettling, haunting sights, The Book elaborates on Margery's travels to various churches and holy sites, especially the spectacle of her crying and her all-white wardrobe that attracts attention and censure wherever she goes. The text highlights a series of subject-positions by evoking Margery's multiple visual experiences: how she shows herself, how others see her, and how she lives out a gendered body produced and circumscribed by social institutions predicated on the relation of seeing and being seen (e.g., confession, affective piety, heresy, family status). The focus on visuality also allows for crucial reflections on debates over The Book's supposedly loose structural organization which critics attribute to the illiteracy of its female author. Yet perhaps this seeming randomness is a product of reconstruction along Margery's visually inspired memory of events (or memory images) that feature her sensual and physical experience.

Excess / Passage: From the Affective and Athletic Body, the Naked Body, to the Body as Gift

"Un Athlétisme affectif " ("An Affective Athleticism") is a minor chapter in Antonin Artaud's Le Théâtre et son double (The Theatre and Its Double). It has altogether some 10 pages. In this particular chapter, Artaud does not elaborate on the theatre of cruelty. What he focuses on instead is the often ignored topic, that is, actor's affective athleticism. For Artaud, an actor is very much like an athlete. And yet unlike an ordinary athlete, an actor has an inner affective dimension and "is an athlete of the heart." He thinks that an actor has an "affective musculature" and the phantom-like affective athleticism is radiated from the musculature and is not dominated by rational thinking. As Artaud suggests, affect is at once the double of muscular movements and the phantom of the theatre which has "a long memory." This memory is the memory of the heart. An actor thinks and acts through an affectionate heart. Because of this phantom-double, the haunted theatre looms into a world where affect and bodily materiality co-exist. The main purpose of actor's training is to master the way of exerting this material affective power and thereby extending its therapeutic efficacy. Taking Chinese acupuncture for an analogy, Artaud thinks that the main task of an actor is to cultivate bountiful affects, to locate affective acupuncture points in the body, to streamline the channels of affect, and to let the passionate body quiver with affectivity. This is the reason why an actor can lead the audience into the magical trance ecstasy. From the affective and athletic body, the naked body, to the body as gift, this paper sets out from the Artaudian perspective of "affective athleticism" and explores the methods and theories that shape the affective and athletic body. It then reflects on, ponders over, and deals with Schechner's production of Dionysus in 69, created in the drastic value-shift time of the 60s. Based on Euripides's The Bacchae, the production deviates from the original script and emphasizes more on the body, physical movements and improvisations. The naked body and affects coalesce in the production of Dionysus in 69, which proclaims the new creeds of ethics and is the naked manifestation of the new theatre aesthetics and sensory experiences.

“Singing Pain”: Gaze and Voice in Toni Morrison’s Jazz

Toni Morrison's Jazz is renowned for its jazz-like, improvisatory but enigmatic narrating voice. An anonymous narrator, whose gender and social identity is not revealed, dominates the development of the plot even though the other voices emerge on and off. In an interview, the author admits that the narration is modeled on the rhythms, the multiple voices and the call-and-response pattern of the jazz performance. In this regard, jazz itself is even assumed by some critics to be this anonymous narrator. Following Beloved as the second novel of her historical trilogy, Jazz accounts the history of the migration from the South to Harlem during 1920s, then a fledgling black urban diaspora known for this musical performance characteristic of African-American culture. The novel, full of visual and auditory imagery, deals with the problematic issue of the formation of the black diasporic identity. The improvising narrating voices account, on the one hand, the "traces" in the scopic field of the City that constitute the racial identity founded on visuality and, on the other, recite the protagonist's tracing/hunting in the City as a sort of nomadic migration from the castrating white gaze and also a trace back to his origin. This paper aims to explore the fluidity of the improvising voice, commingled with the migration and the traces of identity, in terms of the Lacanian conception of objet petit a, which plays an important role in the formation of the subject's identity, so as to shed light on the affiliation between the narrative musicality and black diasporic identity and to construe the interweaving of this identity with the two love objects in the Lacanian theory -- the voice and the gaze. According to Žižek in his "I Hear You with My Eyes," voice as that which screens silence pointing to the lacuna qua objet petit a "vivifies" the subject, whereas gaze "mortifies" the subject because, as Lacan points out in the anecdote of Petit Jean in Seminar XI, the gaze manifests that the subject is "out of place" in the scopic field; music as a form of human voice, for instance, enables the subject to grasp the "being" castrated in the process of symbolization. In contrast with the "mortifying" gaze concealed in the all-seeing City, the narrating voice/jazz veils the muteness qua lack, i.e. the locale of the objet a, and functions to "vivify" the black subject, redeeming it from the "blankness" embodied by the mute black body represented in white racist discourses since the recounting voices invoke the presence and keep the absence, the "inaudible object voice" where the subject emerges, at bay. The jazz rhythm, as a cultural feature of African-American people, seems to turn the narration into a site for cultural identification. As a counter narrative resisting any white-centric racist narrative which functions to "symbolically" interpolate the black subject as a "nigger," the apparently feminine, free-floating jazz performances of the stories in the City display a discourse of the desire for the mother. The spontaneous musical narration reflects the male protagonist's traces for the root of his racial identity -- his mother, a woman figuratively named "Wild." However, the traces end up with nothing but the trace itself, just as the protagonist's name reveals, Joe Trace. The absence of the mother turns out to be the traumatic core that evokes the drive-like tracing. The improvising style of the narration also implies the contingency of the identity formation that jazz seems to propel since just as jazz performance in its improvisation oscillates between call and responses, voices and silence, so the narration plays with the presence of cultural/racial identity and the absence where the subject is.

Stomach-Churning Socialism? Biopolitics in Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle

In response to the pervasiveness of biopolitical administration, Robert Esposito urges us to drop the ill-advised vocabulary of left-right politics and dismiss the critical judgment which is still organized in terms of the time-honored binary of democracy and totalitarianism. At the time when the vital process becomes the only end thought worth pursuing, what is at stake, then, is a far more "profound" clash between naturalization of history and historicization of nature. The birthmark on biopolitics, so to speak, is the trace left by such a clash. From the chiasmatic interpenetration of nature and history, there emerges the dialectical convergence between the politics which tends to relegate itself to the administration of housekeeping, and the life which, while given pride of place among political values, is ironically exposed to the vicissitudes of zoefication. Without such cognizance of the dialectical entanglement between bios and thanatos, it is impossible to imagine an authentic exteriority where the biopolitical immanence can be imploded and transcended. Hannah Arendt is aware of the full scale of the problem entailed in biopolitical administration, so much so that her analysis is more of note than Michel Foucault's wayward discourse. This paper starts with the impossibility of dialogue between Arendt and Foucault. On this ground, I will proceed to the re-examination of the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and its aftermath. The bad blood between Theodore Roosevelt and Sinclair has been a household story ever since, but the antagonism, I will argue, is actually more apparent than real. Be it Roosevelt's commitment to food safety and population health or Sinclair's preoccupation with the socialist reshaping of society, they both take a stand in favor of, and hence symptomatic of the biopolitical administration. Worthy of note in this regard is Sinclair's incorporation of Nietzsche and Fletcherism into his socialist program, which, along with Roosevelt's obsession with eugenics, enables a glimpse into the glaring lethal implications of the biopolitical governance in the Progressive Era. From this perspective, we should stop ourselves to regard humanitarianism as an adequate response, much less the antidote to the havoc wrought by biopolitics. Generally executed on a humanitarian note, Sinclair's gruesome portrayal of the immigrant workers in Chicago's Packingtown is hence no less a function of the biopolitical killing machine, precisely because it is harnessed to the ongoing fabrication of homo sacer in conformity with the principle of life preservation -- a principle that lends fuel to the biopolitical machinery.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8