Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


» Visit Journal Web Site

Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8

The Nation Imagined: The Myth of the American Pastoral in The Pioneers.

James Fenimore Cooper is the first native novelist after the American independence. His The Pioneers, published in 1823, not only initiated American Western Literature, also brought the American frontier imagination into shape. Yet the critics’ perception of Cooper seems to be divided into two extremes. Some of them see his works as glorification of American regeneration and innocence. Some others, by contrast, take him as a romanticist writer with a critical view of the American society. Departing from the role pastoralism played during the American Revolutionary period, this paper explores Cooper’s ideological strategies in employing pastoralism for consolidating the American national identity of regeneration and innocence.

The Politics of Self-Prescribed Destiny as Manifested in William Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation

The first Pilgrims to Plymouth took with them the conviction that God wanted them to settle in America to build “a shining city upon the hill.” Fulfilling this sacred destiny as previewed or suggested in the Old Testament became a mandate for the 17th-century Separatists led by William Bradford. But the New England Way was not without challenge. In the end the Separatists prevailed because they were convinced that theirs was a historic mission architected by the Creator and that the use of harsh measures to rid all obstacles was justified. Of Plymouth Plantation documented the early Puritan’s use of this argument as a dialectic for self-justification as well as to solidify their rule.

Transferring Identity: History, Puritan Narrative, and Early American National Identity

150 years before the War of Independence a sense of American National identity was already developing. Through their writing and reading of the New World venture, the Puritan settlers constructed their identity as God’s chosen people in opposition to Antichristian influences. This construction of identity, marked by the “Thanksgiving” and the “Plymouth Rock,” was the cornerstone of what we now recognize as American identity. However, the strategy and rhetoric that these Puritans employed to construct their American identity were replicas of those employed by the Anglicans in their effort to construct an identity for the English as God’s chosen people in a fight against the Antichristian influence of the Roman Catholic Church. This paper illustrates how identity strategies and rhetoric were first used by the English Protestants to construct English national identity in the Early Modern era, and how these strategies and rhetoric were then transferred by the Puritan settlers in constructing early American identity.

The Genealogy of Childhood in Joy Kogawa’s Obasan

Joy Kogawa’s Obasan, now a highly acclaimed literary text of the uprooting of the Japanese Canadians during the Second World War, is interspersed with the narrator’s childhood memories and presented significantly through the point of view of the child narrator. This paper aims at reading Obasan in the cultural and historical matrix of North American ethnic literature by taking Kogawa’s negotiation between fictional childhood and official history as its major issue. It explores how the childhood memories are deeply implicated in the fluctuations of history, and how the idea of the child makes speakable personal trauma of the internment experiences, and activates, in Michel Foucault’s words, forms of “counter-memory” in Kogawa’s writing. To illuminate the historicity of childhood memories, the paper suggests, Kogawa depicts Naomi’s childhood as a separate space outside of official history, and at the same time, draws upon it as a repository of cultural meanings to demonstrate the interconnection between childhood memories and ethnic histories. The first part of the paper uses theoretical perspectives derived from James Kincaid, Carolyn Steedman, and David Palumbo-Liu to examine the way in which childhood connects ethic memories and historiography. In the second part, the figure of the child in Obasan is read along with some of the theoretical insights that have been developed by Chris Jenks, Philippe Aries, and D. W. Winnicott. Through an intertextual reading of childhood in the novel, the paper highlights the dynamics of childhood narrative in the literary negotiation with the unspeakable past as exemplified in Joy Kogawa.

Voices Unheard, Heroes Unsung: Elegies on Elizabethan Unknown Heroes

In the last phase of the Elizabethan reign, the aging Queen enacted national conscriptions for her Spanish wars in order to consolidate England as the most powerful absolutist state in Europe. England’s laboring-class people were forcibly drafted from their homeland to become cannon fodder for the Queen’s absolutist ambitions. They were taken away from their work positions to fight for the Queen’s nationalistic course, while leaving their wives and children unattended in the homeland. What made their situation even more miserable was that the Elizabethan government was so preoccupied with its absolutist expansion that it had neither time nor energy to attend to its veterans’ job placement after they returned home. Queen Elizabeth’s Spanish wars killed numerous innocent laboring-class soldiers, but the survivors soon found themselves even more desperate than the dead. Some were permanently disabled and were not able to support their families. Others became masterless men begging in the streets of London. And still others used the knowledge they acquired from the battlefield to steal, rob, or even work as professional assassins. Instead of listening to the popular voices of these veteran soldiers, the Queen feared that they would jeopardize her personal security, so she enacted royal proclamations and authorized the lord marshal in London to round them up. The popular voices of the people were curbed, with no way of becoming heard. Yet, Renaissance playwrights unanimously expressed their concerns for masterless men and veteran soldiers through the minor characters in their works. Through their depiction of these minor characters, Renaissance dramatists managed to represent the repressed voices of the laboring-class people. This article aims to examine how these repressed voices were represented on the Renaissance stage and how Renaissance playwrights used their stage as a medium to vocalize the discontent of the people.

Is It a “Monster”?“Monster” and “Monstrosity” in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

The “creature” in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is named as a “monster” by its creator, Frankenstein, at the very moment of its reanimation. Not only its creator calls it a “monster,” but also all the characters in the novel (except old De Lacey). Although these people regard it as monster and punish it with different means, the only excuse they hold is that – it is hideous. They do not attempt to give any convincing reasons beyond this. This essay attempts to argue that the “unspeakable” facts are the reason why people regard it as a “monster” without any hesitation. As the people all call it a monster at first sight by judging it with visual codes, it is the monster’s body that matters. Employing Judith Butler’s theory to decipher its body construction, it is able to discover that the “creature” trespasses the dichotomized sex/gender codes; therefore, people police the social norm by calling it a “monster.” The “creature’s” experience exposes the frailty of the dichotomy in sex/gender.

From Postcolonial to Global English Fiction as A Voice of Resistance and Opportunity for Chinese Novelists

This paper, applying the socioeconomic theories of Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri and the theories of novel of Mikhail Bakhtin and Ian Watt, contextualizes the transformation of the recent Chinese converts in the framework of globalization. Ha Jin and Annie Wang are touchstones to exemplify their unique entrance into a new era of global literatures. The argument is divided into two main categories. First, the resistance of the Chinese writers against their homeland under the shelter of the U.S. is connected with the transition of the world order to the polycentric bio-politics of globalization. Second, the trend for transnational writers, especially the Chinese, to adopt English as their means of creative writing, especially fiction, is analyzed within the structure of global market and capitalism.

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Jun 2013, Volume 22
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5