Founded In    1993
Published   semiannually
Language(s)   Chinese

Fields of Interest


Literatures in English

ISSN   1024-2856
Affiliated Organization   English and American Literature Association of TAIWAN
Publisher   Bookman Books, Ltd.
Editorial Board

Ping-chia Feng.
Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, National Chiao Tung University

Editorial board:
Eva Yin-i Chen Professor of Department of English, National Chengchi University
Wen-ching Ho Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Feng Chia University
I-ping Liang Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University
Yu-chen Lin Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Sun Yat-sen University
Ching-hsi Perng Distinguished Professor of English and Drama of National Taiwan University
Tsu-chung Su Professor of Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University

Advisory board:
Ying-Hsiung Chou   Emeritus Professor of Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chiao Tung University
Yu-cheng Lee   Distinguished Research Fellow and Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Te-Hsing Shan   Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Institute of American and European Studies, Academia Sinica
Rey Chow               Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies, Comparative Literature, and English
William Tay   Chair Professor of Division of Humanities, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong   Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley



Submission Guidelines and Editorial Policies

A.The journal will not consider for publication manuscripts being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Any content of thesis or dissertation will be considered as submitted manuscripts.

B.Two or three pundits of the concerned fields will participate in the anonymous refereeing process. Please take the advice of the comments of referees to revise the acknowledged manuscripts. We reserve the rights of revising the acknowledged manuscripts including any translation and the bibliography.

C.The author of the acknowledged manuscript will be presented with five latest issues.

D.It is the Journal’s policy to upload the content of the publication manuscripts to the associated websites of EALA for academic use.

E.Please send the manuscript, an abstract, and a list of keywords separately in Chinese and English as Word-attachments to:

F.Manuscripts should be prepared according to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, or please refer to the following concise principles:
a.The title of any book, journal, film, or painting in Chinese should be quoted with 《》. Titles in western languages should be italicized. For example: 《在理論的年代》by Lee Yu-cheng, 《歐洲雜誌》、the French children film 《大雨大雨一直下》, 《葛爾尼卡》by Picasso, Matrix, and Portnoy’s Complaint.
b.The Chinese title of a single thesis or brief work should be quoted with <> and with ” ” if it is in western languages. For example: 貢布里希的<魔法、神話與隱喻:論諷刺畫>, 以薩.辛格的<卡夫卡的朋友>, “Migrations of Chineseness: Ethnicity in the Postmodern World,” “Interview with Toni Morrison.”
c.Any names or titles of people, books, or translated works quoting in the manuscripts for the first time should be noted with the original language in parenthesis. For examples: 拉岡<Jacques Lacan>, 《人性污點》(Human Stain), <支持阿爾及利亞> (“Taking a Stand for Algeria”). However, commonly known foreign names (like “Shakespeare”) or nouns (like “postmodernism”) require no notes.
d.Numbers and year should be written in Chinese characters; page numbers and published year of the cited works should be written in Arabic numerals. For example: 「經濟學家在十八世紀末首次被視為自成一類。到了一七九○年,偉大的英國哲學家兼政治家勃爾克(Edmund Burke)就已預見了歐洲的未來,並為之哀嘆不已,他說道:『騎士時代一去不復回,如今詭辯家、經濟學家與謀略家當道;歐洲的榮光永滅了。』」(1985:3).
e.Information of the bibliography should be quoted with the parenthesis in the manuscripts. For example, “(Ondaatje 75)” or “(Dissemination 236).” If different books or essays of an author are quoted more than once, note their title or year of publication. For example, “(Said 1978:7).” If different works of an author in the same year are quoted, note “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year of publication. For example, “(Derrida 1996a:68).”
f.Footnotes are only for supplementary exposition. Please list the bibliography after the main text. For the form of bibliography, please refer to the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Mailing Address

Department of English, Tamkang University
151 Ying-chuan Road
Tamsui, Taipei County
Taiwan 25137, R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-26215656 ext. 2006 Fax: 886-2-26209912

REAL: Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei wenxue pinglun]

Review of English and American Literature (REAL) is a journal of the English and American Literature Association of the Republic of China founded in 1993. REAL is published by Bookman Books Ltd. biannually (June and December) and is devoted to publishing innovative research results concerning English and American literature written in Mandarin Chinese. REAL was rated as the first-class journal by the National Science Council of Taiwan in 2003. Contributions from domestic and foreign researchers of English and American literatures are welcomed.


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Jun 2013, Volume 22

Editor’s Notes

Spectacles of Colonial Empire: Imagining the Aboriginals in British Early Modern Operas

The construction of spectacles for entertainments can be referred to the Greek and Roman periods when the public spectacles were intended for political purposes. During the European Age of Exploration, exploration initiated by the maritime powers brought up the culture of curiosities and the construction of the foreign on the stage. The spectacle culture was a mechanism for courtly entertainment and political propaganda during the period of Queen Elizabeth I and especially of King James I of Britain. With material culture as a fashion, operatic performances in the late seventeenth century and the eighteenth century cultivated a spectacle culture that brought in ethnography of aborigines as well as colonial discourses. Exploring the major playwrights in early modern Britain, this paper explores the spectacles of aboriginals in operas written by Purcell, D'Avenant, and Coleman and analyzes the visual representation of ethnic tribes as a part of colonial discourse in the formation of the British empire

The Carnivalesque in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest

This essay attempts to offer a Bakhtinian reading of Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest, presenting the carnivalesque in it. The first part points out that Wilde's principle of creating the farce is to invert so as to subvert, which is also the way laughter operates in carnival. The method of inversion/subversion is mainly employed in language and characterization. The second part explores the multiple identities in the farce; like people wearing masks and playing others in carnival, the characters fictionalize or assume different identities to liberate themselves from the responsibilities and limitations imposed by the society and have different experiences and pleasures. The third part focuses on the young bodies indulging in eating and drinking, the mechanical and symmetrical movements, and the monstrous female image, all of which portray the "grotesque realism" in carnival. The fourth part argues that Earnest is a political farce by elaborating on the parallels between it and Wilde's political writing, "The Soul of Man under Socialism," and exposing Wilde's mockery of and challenge to British hegemony with his Irish humor. By using Bakhtin's theorization of carnival, the author hopes to provide a research work on the carnivalesque in the renowned and popular farce, with an emphasis on its political subversion.

Re-animating Alice: Victorian Spectacles and Optics

Out of all the abundance of new-fangled innovations and marvels in the Victorian age, it is perhaps the invention of various optical devices that forever altered the way people view the world. This paper aims to examine Charles Lutwidge Dodgson's (Lewis Carroll) affinity towards optical devices such as the magic lantern and the camera and how he incorporates a simulacrum of them into his perennial Alice books. Dodgson was fascinated by the development of various optical gadgets as a child and later became a dedicated amateur photographer for over two decades. Besides photography, Dodgson was also intrigued by the use of the magic lantern, a rudimentary projector. The device enables the showing of images and propels private viewings to public appreciations. Dodgson's experience with the two optical instruments has been infused into the Alice books via John Tenniel's illustrations. By exploring new visual boundaries heralded by popular optical contraptions, Dodgson's narrative and Tenniel's graphics maintain a constant referential relationship that is reciprocally enhanced in their play with word and image. Only through a thorough appreciation of how Dodgson's masterful play on words is inseparable from his acute appreciation of optics can one truly view the Alices as they are -- visual-verbal spectacles that transcend the test of time.

Synchronic Spectaculum: Mola Narrative in Spiderwoman Theater Sun, Moon and Feather

Inspired by the tribal quilt, mola, in Kuna, Panama, this paper contemplates the possible inter-playing between mola quilting and Spiderwoman Theater's story weaving by means of a study of one of Spiderwoman Theater's plays, Sun, Moon and Feather. This paper, firstly, examines the construction of mola with the focus on its special technique, reverse appliqué. It then analyzes the inter-weaving among reverse appliqué, the indigenes' story weaving and the progress of civilization. It argues, in light of the understanding of the reverse appliqué and its implicit vitality of mola, the plot arrangement, multiple perspectives and multi-media arrangement on stage in Sun, Moon and Feather have co-constructed a spectacular/synchronic stage.

From Passing to Masquerade and Performance: The Body Politics of People with Disabilities

Disability activists assert that body is a place of power struggles and disability is socially constructed. With "different" bodies, people with disabilities, under the constant and prejudiced staring from ableism, are stigmatized as "the other" by the dominant culture. They are deprived of the rights and opportunities to receive integrate education, get a job, and participate in the public space. As a result, they can hardly claim subjectivity or identity. Insofar as they are discriminated against, marginalized, and disfranchised, they become dehumanized. In the 70s, disability activists and scholars started to claim their rights as human and citizens and, furthermore, to undermine the domination and hegemony of the ableist ideology. Drawing on Rosemarie Garland-Thomson's theory of staring, Lennard Davis' discourse on the construction of normalcy, Robert McRuer's crip theory about the able-bodied performance, Fiona Kumari Campbell's discussion of ableism, and Tobin Siebers' theory on passing and masquerade, the essay studies the body politics of the disabled, with a special emphasis on Simi Linton's My Body Politic: A Memoir, from the perspectives of staring, passing, claiming, masquerade, and performance; it also illustrates how their arguments provide the strategies for liberating people with disabilities from stigmatization and oppression.

Ursula K. Le Guin's The Dispossessed: A Utopia-Searching Bildungsroman for the Age of Resource Scarcity

In The Dispossessed, Ursula K. Le Guin (1929- ) intends to explore the possibility of building an "anarchist communist" society. She openly states that her purpose of writing fantastic stories is to provoke readers to confront the reality of our "primary world" with a contrasting alternative of a "secondary world." The story of The Dispossessed centers on the life of Shevek, who exiles himself from his dispossessed homeland, Anarres, to seek new freedom on Urras, where the capitalist ethic of competition and possession is the dominative life value. After testing himself in two conflicting systems, Shevek finally affirms that the revolutionary utopia of "the dispossessed" is the right path human species shall choose to achieve the potential of an evolutionary social being. Generally speaking, The Dispossessed is a novel of "education," elaborating how Shevek's "dispossessed" self and worldview is formed, tested, renewed and matured. From eco-critical point of view, Le Guin's contribution is to make the negative condition of "scarcity" into a positive space where new political, economical, gender and language emancipation could be experimented. With the dialectic power of utopian imagination, Le Guin helps us to explore what a possible community ethos we might need to cultivate when the age of resource scarcity is here to come.

"Like a Dog": J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace and Feminist Ecocriticism

Based on the debate between animal studies and animality studies, this essay builds on current ecofeminism, particularly a branch called feminist ecocriticism, theorizing the ethics of care and critique of rights-based approach, and analyzes J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace. It then focuses on Carol Adams's "absent referent," Josephine Donovan's "thing in itself" and Greta Gaard's vegetarian ecofeminism to see how sexism, racism, speciesism are intertwined in the post-apartheid South Africa. It concludes by discussing the significant meanings of the male protagonist David Lurie's "becoming animal," which is contestable from the perspective of feminist ecocriticism.

Unchained Memories: An Interview with Chi Pan-yuan

齊邦媛教授於抗戰期間就讀武漢大學外文系,受教於朱光潛先生等名家,1947 年應聘來 臺擔任臺灣大學外文系助教,開啟了與臺灣外文學界數十年的因緣。後來前往臺中,推動成 立國立中興大學外文系,擔任首任系主任,並於國立編譯館人文社會組主任任內,致力改革 教科書,推動中英翻譯,促進文化交流。在臺大教授任內,與多位中、外文系老師提倡比較 文學,蔚然成風,影響深遠。齊老師曾多年擔任《中華民國筆會季刊》(The Taipei Chinese Pen) 主編,近年與王德威教授為哥倫比亞大學出版社合編「臺灣現代華語文學」(Modern Chinese Literature from Taiwan)系列,向國際推介臺灣文學不遺餘力。 本訪談於 2009 年五月二十三日在桃園龜山長庚養生文化村進行,當時她的回憶錄《巨流 河》已進入緊鑼密鼓的階段,預計於七月七日對日抗戰紀念日出版。儘管如此忙碌,齊老師 仍撥冗接受我和王智明博士的訪談,因為我們對外文學門在臺灣的建制史一向具有高度興 趣,當時也在構思相關計畫,其中一部分涉及後來的國科會「百年人文傳承大展」整合型計 畫。 當天由我開車載著智明和助理謝育昀小姐同往,就在齊老師筆下這間「最後的書房」裡, 由我和智明主訪,育昀錄音、攝影,前後約兩小時。齊老師的記憶奇佳,談興甚濃,時而會 超出我們設定的議題,並不時取出資料和老照片佐證。訪談結束後,齊老師循例請訪客到樓 下餐廳用餐並閒話家常。 訪談全稿由助理陳銘杰先生謄出。鑒於其中有不少關於英美文學與比較文學在臺灣發展 的第一手資料,以及相關的教材與教學經驗,頗具參考價值,於是今年一月請智明編輯並加 大小標題,我修訂兩遍後於農曆年前寄給齊老師過目。因為齊老師正忙於準備一本與《巨流 河》相關的新書,所以我不敢催促,只在信中請齊老師過目,並看有無可能於兩週內擲回。 數週後接獲高齡八十九的齊老師寄回的訪談稿,在註明三月二十五日的小信札上寫道:「不知 何故,我一起始就動了增刪的興致,竟致大大地做起來了(口語自嫌囉囌),終至停不下來, 做了多日(江山易改,本性難移)」。再看訪談稿,只見她在標題上用紅鉛筆打勾註明「好題 目」,內文也做了不少修訂,少數地方並大加補充,頁邊的空白不夠時甚至黏上貼紙,認真仔 細,一筆不苟,前輩學者對文字的敬謹令人佩服。修訂稿由協助膳打《巨流河》、熟悉齊老師 字跡的助理黃碧儀小姐整理,以饗讀者。

Other Issues

December 2016, Volume 29
June 2016ALTTEXT, Volume 28
December 2015ALTTEXT, REAL Volume 27
June 2015ALTTEXT, Volume 26
December 2010, Issue 17
Senses and Literature, Volume 16
Homing and Housing, Volume 23
Special Topic: The Fantastic, Volume 24
Translation and Literatures in English, Volume 25
Beyond the Canon, Volume 21
Trauma and Literature, Volume 20
Time Matters, Volume 19
Everydayness, Volume 18
Everydayness, Volume 18
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 15 December 2009, Volume 15
Word, Image, Space, Vol 14
Landscape and Literature, Vol 13
Local color of modern landscape, Volume 12
Review of English and American Literature [Yingmei Wenxue Pinglun] vol. 11, Volume 11
The City in English and American Literature, Volume 10
Global English Literature, Volume 9
Innocence and manifest destiny, Volume 8
Modernism, Volume 7
, Volume 6
Renaissance: between innovation and tradition, Volume 5
Innocence and Manifest Destiny: The Core Issue of American Literature , Issue 8